Transparent Electrodes For Optoelectronics

Depending on the electronic properties of the two materials, a primary metal-semiconductor interface can create a potential energy barrier to the efficient flow of electrons. It is critical to carefully select the contact material and the process for depositing material onto the semiconductor. Design considerations for optoelectronic components such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs), photodetectors, and solar cells are more complex. These devices require a transparent contact material to allow light in or out. Researchers have now presented an overview of preventing device damage during the creation of transparent electrodes, specifically sputtering.

The target semiconductor is placed in a vacuum chamber and surrounded by plasma during the sputtering process. When an electric field is formed between the target and the cathode made of the sputtered material, fast-moving plasma ions transfer atoms/molecules from one to the other.

This transparent electrode technique is useful for producing thin films of transparent conductive oxides (TCO) with low resistivity and high transparency, such as indium tin oxide (ITO).

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