Researchers have been investigating the effects of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines on human lung carcinoma cells. Raman imaging allowed scientists to investigate the cellular components without breaking open the cell.
Cytochromes can be classified based on the lowest electronic energy absorption band in their reduced state, allowing the different cytochromes to be distinguished. Laser excitation with a wavelength of 532nm with the energy in coincidence with the electron absorption of the Q band can lead to enhanced intensity of the Raman imaging (scattering) that allows cytochrome c to be studied at low concentrations under the same physiological conditions as humans.
Cytochrome c is located in the internal mitochondrial membranes between complex III and complex IV, and it is important in the electron transport chain. It normally exists in the oxidized form and is reduced during respiration. Raman imaging (spectra) are excellent at markers of the redox status of cytochrome c, as the Raman signals of the reduced form are significantly higher than the oxidized form.