The effects of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines on human lung carcinoma cells have been studied by researchers. Scientists could investigate cellular components using Raman imaging without opening the cell.
Cytochromes can be classified based on the lowest electronic energy absorption band in their reduced state, allowing them to be distinguished from one another. Laser excitation at 532nm with energy in coincidence with electron absorption in the Q band can result in increased intensity of Raman imaging (scattering), allowing cytochrome c to be studied at low concentrations under human physiological conditions.
Cytochrome c is found between complex III and IV in the internal mitochondrial membranes and plays an important role in the electron transport chain. It is normally found oxidized and is reduced during respiration. Raman imaging (spectra) is an excellent marker of cytochrome c redox status because the Raman signals of the reduced form are significantly higher than those of the oxidized form.
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