Biosensors are usually designed following a three-step process: recognition of biomolecules, triggering of signal, and detection (e.g., using phase change material properties). Recognizing the biomolecules is the first and very important step in designing a biosensor system. Biosensors are useful for environmental analysis and agricultural management applications, particularly in detecting infectious diseases in crops, toxic materials, and pollutants.
Biosensors are classified into various categories, such as optical biosensors, electrical biosensors, electronic biosensors, etc., of which optical biosensors are always in great demand due to their optical properties and quick response to nanoparticles.
Researchers investigated tunable biosensors for detection using infrared in the range of 1.5 µm and 1.65 µm. The biosensor is made of phase change material formed by different alloy combinations. The material changes phase with temperature changes, giving the tunable sensing property for biosensing applications. The sensors were tested on different concentrations of biomolecules. The tunable response observed from the tests demonstrates the potential application of the materials in the design of switching and sensing systems.
The wavelength shift and different metamaterial (cubic and cylindrical) gold resonator structures have also been studied. Regarding sensitivity variation, the absorption spectra of various structures and arrays have been investigated. The high absorption intensity can be linked to the high refractive index caused by using GST in constructing the biosensor.
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