Biosensors are usually designed following a three-step process: recognition of biomolecules, triggering of signal, and detection (e.g. using phase change material properties). Recognizing the biomolecules is the first and very important step in designing a biosensor system. Biosensors are useful for applications in environmental analysis and agricultural management, particularly in the detection of infectious diseases in crops, toxic materials, and pollutants.
Biosensors are classified into various categories, such as optical biosensors, electrical biosensors, electronic biosensors, etc., of which, optical biosensors are always in great demand due to their optical properties and quick response to nanoparticles.
Researchers carried out an investigation on tunable biosensors for detection using infrared in the range of 1.5 µm and 1.65 µm. The biosensor is made of phase change material formed by different alloy combinations. The material changes phase with changes in temperature, giving the tunable sensing property for biosensing application. The sensors were tested on different concentrations of biomolecules. The tunable response observed from the tests demonstrates the potential application of the materials in the design of switching and sensing systems.