Near-Infrared Spectroscopy – Early Cardiac Arrest Detection

Worldwide, sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is one of the main causes of death. The SCA-to-resuscitation interval highlights the therapeutic need for accurate and prompt SCA detection, a critical factor in determining patient outcomes. This application may benefit from the non-invasive visual method called near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). A non-invasive optical biosensing method called near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can transcutaneously measure changes in tissue oxygenation and hemodynamics in real time. Photoplethysmography (PPG), a technology that has found widespread use in clinical settings since the development of pulse oximetry, is founded on similar physical principles as NIRS.

Transcutaneous NIRS has been explored to identify pentobarbital-induced alterations during cardiac arrest in eight Yucatan miniature pigs. The spinal cord tissues’ partial oxygen pressure (PO2) and invasively measured carotid blood pressure were compared to NIRS readings during cardiac arrest. They noticed statistically significant drops in mean arterial pressure (MAP) from baseline to five minutes after pentobarbital delivery.

NIRS and blood pressure-derived pulse rates were not significantly different during baseline times (p > 0.99) nor after pentobarbital administration (p = 0.97). Transcutaneous near-infrared spectroscopy has shown the ability to detect sudden hemodynamic changes brought on by cardiac arrest in times comparable to invasive measures. Researchers conclude that further research is necessary before deciding whether transcutaneous NIRS monitoring presents a new, non-invasive method for SCA detection.

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