Inline Electron Holography – Gradient Flipping, Phase Prediction

Transmission electron microscopes use inline holography to measure and rectify images in real space and to measure magnetic and electric fields. On the other hand, it needs help with incoherent dispersion and low-spatial-frequency information transmission. This work optimizes reconstruction parameters and compares the outcomes using gradient flipping, phase prediction, and incoherent background removal. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) uses rhythmic characteristics at object edges called fresnel fringes to identify and direct the focus of light-emitting materials. They have details about the complicated exit wave’s phase stored in a captured image. Off-axis electron holography is commonplace today despite the need for high biprism voltage, stable microscopes, light sources, and lengthy acquisition periods. The method of inline electron holography is based on the interplay between the electron wave functions that communicate the object and themselves. Fine Fresnel fringes carry information about high spatial frequencies in the phase.

While less effective at recovering phase information at lower spatial frequencies, inline electron holography is effective at recovering high spatial frequency phase information. Phase changes can be obtained at distances greater than the lateral coherence length using non-interferometric reconstruction procedures such as the transfer of intensity equation (TIE). However, these algorithms don’t know about boundary constraints at the field’s borders of view, enhancing low-frequency noise. While several iterative reconstruction techniques have been created, only some can retrieve the entire spatial frequency spectrum. This communication presents an inline electron holography reconstruction approach incorporating a flux-preserving non-linear imaging model, gradient flipping, phase prediction, and incoherent background removal.

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