LIBS is a rapidly developed chemical analysis technology for trace element analyses in gases, liquids, and solids. The plasma-grating-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique (GIBS) could overcome the limitations of FIBS. A high-power laser pulse is used in GIBS to elicit short-lived, high-temperature plasma in a sample. As the plasma cools, it emits spectral peaks corresponding to periodic table elements.
Recently, researchers combined FIBS and GIBS to develop an efficient technique for the sensitive detection of trace metals in liquid. They demonstrated the use of strong nonlinear interactions of filaments (coplanar and noncollinear) with various plasma gratings to achieve a technological breakthrough known as “F-GIBS” (filament- and plasma-grating-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique). F-GIBS was implemented by analyzing aqueous solutions with fluid jets.
This plasma excitation technique effectively avoids the negative effects of liquid surface fluctuation and bubble formation caused by violent plasma explosions. Two femtosecond laser beams were noncollinear coupled to create plasma gratings that covered almost the entire jet and excited the liquid sample. A third filament was placed in the same plane as the plasma gratings to couple nonlinearly (vertical to the fluid jet). There were no random filament breakups as the nonlinearly coupled filaments entered the fluid jet across the air-aqueous interface. F-GIBS is a promising technique for detecting trace elements in aqueous solutions with improved sensitivities.
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