Scientists have developed a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) method that generates fast and reliable 3D images of curvilinear structures from a single sample orientation. This STEM method can acquire images in a single shot, making it possible to study samples dynamically as they change over time. Further, it can rapidly provide a “sense” of three dimensions, similar to a movie viewed in 3D. Like traditional TEM, the STEM 3D microscopy method can provide high-resolution views of samples that are just a few nanometers across. However, it has the additional ability to identify the 3D morphology of the sample.