Ptychography Enables Lensless On-Chip Microscopy

Guoan Zheng, a University of Connecticut (UConn) professor of biomedical engineering, has published his findings on a successful demonstration of a lensless on-chip microscopy platform in Lab on a Chip. Zheng suggests his ptychography platform eliminates several of the most common problems with conventional optical microscopy while providing a low-cost option for the diagnosis of [..]

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Infrared Microscope

Researchers have added infrared (IR) capability to a standard optical microscope, with the goal of digital biopsy for cancer diagnosis. Pairing IR measurements with high-resolution optical images and machine learning algorithms, they created digital biopsies that closely correlated with traditional pathology techniques and also outperformed state-of-the-art infrared microscopes. The advantage is that no stains are [..]

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Hybrid Integrated Photonics

Big datacenters, Industry 4.0, and personalized healthcare—all these rapidly growing markets have one thing in common: they need miniaturized photonic components. Such miniaturized, or integrated, photonic components offer solutions for sensing, data transmission, and data processing. The technologies for manufacturing, alignment, and assembly of integrated photonic components are evolving. Often, the markets are small—and so [..]

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In conventional sensing methods, noise is always a problem, especially in systems that are meant to detect changes in their environment that are hardly bigger or even smaller than the noise in the system. Encountering this problem in his experiments with interacting photons, AMOLF physicist Said Rodriguez thought of a way around it. In an [..]

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For decades scientists have been trying to build computers that process information using light rather than electric currents. One of the biggest stumbling blocks has been finding a suitable nonlinear process to carry out the optical equivalent of a transistor’s switching. But now a U.S.–Canadian research collaboration believes it may have the answer—a specially-designed gel [..]

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Direct laser processing of material surfaces is a powerful technique for modifying the optical and electrical properties of those materials, often through the creation of nanostructures on the surface. The precise control of those surface modifications, and hence of the material’s modified properties, has remained challenging, largely due to the element of random chance that [..]

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Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) that emit light in the near- and mid-infrared (IR) spectral ranges have the potential to power a range of optical devices. However, fundamental physical limitations decrease the intensity of IR-emitting QDs. At longer wavelengths, the quantum yield of such QDs decreases as the radiative emission rate drops following Fermi’s golden rule, [..]

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Using pseudo-random speckle patterns is an efficient way to image targets, but most approaches require bulky, expensive, complex and slow machinery. To apply this technique to biomedical imaging, such as ultra-thin endoscopy or in vivo neural imaging, a smaller device that can generate random speckles is needed. A team of researchers led by Takuo Tanemura [..]

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Researchers have demonstrated the use of stacked, transparent graphene photodetectors combined with image processing algorithms to produce 3-D images and range detection. Researchers at the University of Michigan have proven the viability of a 3-D camera that can provide high quality three-dimensional imaging while determining how far away objects are from the lens. This information [..]

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Sustained concentration (also known as a sustained state of vigilance) will generate a different type of memory than a momentary startle, and these differences are linked to distinct signaling molecules in the brains of mice. Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Brain Science (CBS) used optogenetics to help visualize these dynamics in the living mouse [..]

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While living tissue strongly absorbs and scatters visible light, there are two spectral regions at slightly longer wavelengths for which attenuation and scattering is lower. These two bands are called the first and second near-infrared (NIR) windows. The NIR-II band is particularly attractive, although labels that emit in this band are difficult to fabricate. A [..]

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Time is critical when diagnosing sepsis, but the tests currently used to identify this disease can take up to 72 hours. Researchers at the Laboratory of Bionanophotonic Systems (BIOS) at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) have developed an optical biosensor that reduces sepsis diagnosis time from several days to a few minutes. The portable [..]

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A research team in Spain has developed a low-cost colloidal quantum dot photodetector capable of sensing in the long-wave infrared (IR), with the potential to replace currently available, more expensive commercial solutions (Nano Lett., doi: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b04130). The new technology fills an existing gap in the photodetection spectrum and, according to the researchers, may prove useful [..]

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The challenge of recovering image data from objects hidden from direct observation or concealed by corners, termed non-line-of-sight imaging (NLoS), can be tackled in several ways, often involving methods to recover information from highly scattered or diffuse optical signals. Techniques involving time-of-flight measurements as a means of retracing a signal’s journey have been studied for [..]

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A way of using light to convert a normal optical material into a frequency doubler has been developed by Mohammad Taghinejad and colleagues at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The technique could have a range of applications from creating all-optical information-processing devices to studying quantum-mechanical tunnelling. Frequency doubling is an optical effect that occurs in [..]

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A variety of medical devices can be inserted into the gastrointestinal tract to treat, diagnose, or monitor GI disorders. Many of these have to be removed by endoscopic surgery once their job is done. However, MIT engineers have now come up with a way to trigger such devices to break down inside the body when [..]

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Quicker is not always better, especially when it comes to a 3-D sensor in advanced technology. With applications in autonomous vehicles, robots and drones, security systems and more, researchers are striving for a 3-D sensor that is compact and easy to use. A team from Yokohama National University in Japan believes they have developed a [..]

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Accurate identification and segmentation of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is essential for the diagnosis and management of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography (PR-OCTA) enables both cross-sectional and en face visualization of CNV. However, CNV identification and segmentation remains difficult even with PR-OCTA due to the presence of residual artifacts. In this [..]

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Researchers at New York University (NYU; New York, NY) combined an advanced optical imaging method with an artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm to produce accurate, real-time intraoperative diagnosis of brain tumors. In their study, the researchers examined the diagnostic accuracy of brain tumor image classification through machine learning, compared with the accuracy of pathologist interpretation of [..]

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A team headed by Frank Stienkemeier at The University of Freiburg’s Institute of Physics and Marcel Mudrich at the University of Aarhus in Denmark has observed the ultrafast reaction of nanodroplets of helium after excitation with extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) using a free-electron laser in real time. Lasers generating high-intensity ultrashort XUV and X-ray pulses [..]

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